Report Cover

Global Pentanoic Acid Market Research Report 2022


The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by manufacturers, by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. by Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type
    Valeric Acid Standard
    Valeric Acid High Purity
Segment by Application
    Synthetic Lubricant
    API
    Others
By Company
    Perstorp
    OXEA
Production by Region
    North America
    Europe
    China
    Japan
Consumption by Region
    North America
        U.S.
        Canada
    Europe
        Germany
        France
        U.K.
        Italy
        Russia
    Asia-Pacific
        China
        Japan
        South Korea
        India
        Australia
        Taiwan
        Indonesia
        Thailand
        Malaysia
        Philippines
        Vietnam
    Latin America
        Mexico
        Brazil
        Argentina
1 Pentanoic Acid Market Overview
    1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Pentanoic Acid
    1.2 Pentanoic Acid Segment by Type
        1.2.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
        1.2.2 Valeric Acid Standard
        1.2.3 Valeric Acid High Purity
    1.3 Pentanoic Acid Segment by Application
        1.3.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
        1.3.2 Synthetic Lubricant
        1.3.3 API
        1.3.4 Others
    1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
        1.4.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
        1.4.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
        1.4.3 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
    1.5 Global Market Size by Region
        1.5.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
        1.5.2 North America Pentanoic Acid Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
        1.5.3 Europe Pentanoic Acid Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
        1.5.4 China Pentanoic Acid Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
        1.5.5 Japan Pentanoic Acid Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 Market Competition by Manufacturers
    2.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
    2.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
    2.3 Pentanoic Acid Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
    2.4 Global Pentanoic Acid Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
    2.5 Manufacturers Pentanoic Acid Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
    2.6 Pentanoic Acid Market Competitive Situation and Trends
        2.6.1 Pentanoic Acid Market Concentration Rate
        2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Pentanoic Acid Players Market Share by Revenue
        2.6.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion
3 Production Capacity by Region
    3.1 Global Production Capacity of Pentanoic Acid Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
    3.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
    3.3 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
    3.4 North America Pentanoic Acid Production
        3.4.1 North America Pentanoic Acid Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
        3.4.2 North America Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
    3.5 Europe Pentanoic Acid Production
        3.5.1 Europe Pentanoic Acid Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
        3.5.2 Europe Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
    3.6 China Pentanoic Acid Production
        3.6.1 China Pentanoic Acid Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
        3.6.2 China Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
    3.7 Japan Pentanoic Acid Production
        3.7.1 Japan Pentanoic Acid Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
        3.7.2 Japan Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
4 Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Region
    4.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Region
        4.1.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Region
        4.1.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Region
    4.2 North America
        4.2.1 North America Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country
        4.2.2 U.S.
        4.2.3 Canada
    4.3 Europe
        4.3.1 Europe Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country
        4.3.2 Germany
        4.3.3 France
        4.3.4 U.K.
        4.3.5 Italy
        4.3.6 Russia
    4.4 Asia Pacific
        4.4.1 Asia Pacific Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Region
        4.4.2 China
        4.4.3 Japan
        4.4.4 South Korea
        4.4.5 China Taiwan
        4.4.6 Southeast Asia
        4.4.7 India
        4.4.8 Australia
    4.5 Latin America
        4.5.1 Latin America Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country
        4.5.2 Mexico
        4.5.3 Brazil
5 Segment by Type
    5.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
    5.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
    5.3 Global Pentanoic Acid Price by Type (2017-2022)
6 Segment by Application
    6.1 Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
    6.2 Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
    6.3 Global Pentanoic Acid Price by Application (2017-2022)
7 Key Companies Profiled
    7.1 Perstorp
        7.1.1 Perstorp Pentanoic Acid Corporation Information
        7.1.2 Perstorp Pentanoic Acid Product Portfolio
        7.1.3 Perstorp Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
        7.1.4 Perstorp Main Business and Markets Served
        7.1.5 Perstorp Recent Developments/Updates
    7.2 OXEA
        7.2.1 OXEA Pentanoic Acid Corporation Information
        7.2.2 OXEA Pentanoic Acid Product Portfolio
        7.2.3 OXEA Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
        7.2.4 OXEA Main Business and Markets Served
        7.2.5 OXEA Recent Developments/Updates
8 Pentanoic Acid Manufacturing Cost Analysis
    8.1 Pentanoic Acid Key Raw Materials Analysis
        8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
        8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
    8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
    8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Pentanoic Acid
    8.4 Pentanoic Acid Industrial Chain Analysis
9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
    9.1 Marketing Channel
    9.2 Pentanoic Acid Distributors List
    9.3 Pentanoic Acid Customers
10 Market Dynamics
    10.1 Pentanoic Acid Industry Trends
    10.2 Pentanoic Acid Market Drivers
    10.3 Pentanoic Acid Market Challenges
    10.4 Pentanoic Acid Market Restraints
11 Production and Supply Forecast
    11.1 Global Forecasted Production of Pentanoic Acid by Region (2023-2028)
    11.2 North America Pentanoic Acid Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
    11.3 Europe Pentanoic Acid Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
    11.4 China Pentanoic Acid Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
    11.5 Japan Pentanoic Acid Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
    12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of Pentanoic Acid
    12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of Pentanoic Acid by Country
    12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Pentanoic Acid by Country
    12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of Pentanoic Acid by Region
    12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of Pentanoic Acid by Country
13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)
    13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)
        13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production of Pentanoic Acid by Type (2023-2028)
        13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Pentanoic Acid by Type (2023-2028)
        13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price of Pentanoic Acid by Type (2023-2028)
    13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2023-2028)
        13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2023-2028)
        13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2023-2028)
        13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2023-2028)
14 Research Finding and Conclusion
15 Methodology and Data Source
    15.1 Methodology/Research Approach
        15.1.1 Research Programs/Design
        15.1.2 Market Size Estimation
        15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
    15.2 Data Source
        15.2.1 Secondary Sources
        15.2.2 Primary Sources
    15.3 Author List
    15.4 Disclaimer

List of Tables Table 1. Global Pentanoic Acid Market Size by Type (MT) & (US$ Million) (2022 VS 2028) Table 2. Global Pentanoic Acid Market Size by Application (MT) & (US$ Million) (2022 VS 2028) Table 3. Pentanoic Acid Market Size Comparison by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028 Table 4. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity by Manufacturers (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 5. Global Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) by Manufacturers (2017-2022) Table 6. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022) Table 7. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue by Manufacturers (2017-2022) & (US$ Million) Table 8. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022) Table 9. Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) & (based on the Revenue in Pentanoic Acid as of 2021) Table 10. Global Market Pentanoic Acid Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Manufacturers (2017-2022) Table 11. Manufacturers Pentanoic Acid Production Sites and Area Served Table 12. Manufacturers Pentanoic Acid Product Types Table 13. Global Pentanoic Acid Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI) Table 14. Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Table 15. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT) by Region (2017-2022) Table 16. Global Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) by Region (2017-2022) Table 17. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) by Region (2017-2022) Table 18. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022) Table 19. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 20. North America Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 21. Europe Pentanoic Acid Production (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 22. China Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 23. Japan Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 24. Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market by Region (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 25. Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Region (2017-2022) Table 26. North America Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 27. Europe Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 28. Asia Pacific Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Region (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 29. Latin America Pentanoic Acid Consumption by Country (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 30. Global Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) by Type (2017-2022) Table 31. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022) Table 32. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) by Type (2017-2022) Table 33. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Share by Type (2017-2022) Table 34. Global Pentanoic Acid Price (USD/MT) by Type (2017-2022) Table 35. Global Pentanoic Acid Production by Application (2017-2022) & (MT) Table 36. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022) Table 37. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) by Application (2017-2022) Table 38. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Share by Application (2017-2022) Table 39. Global Pentanoic Acid Price (USD/MT) by Application (2017-2022) Table 40. Perstorp Pentanoic Acid Corporation Information Table 41. Perstorp Specification and Application Table 42. Perstorp Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 43. Perstorp Main Business and Markets Served Table 44. Perstorp Recent Developments/Updates Table 45. OXEA Pentanoic Acid Corporation Information Table 46. OXEA Specification and Application Table 47. OXEA Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT), Revenue (US$ Million), Price (USD/MT) and Gross Margin (2017-2022) Table 48. OXEA Main Business and Markets Served Table 49. OXEA Recent Developments/Updates Table 50. Production Base and Market Concentration Rate of Raw Material Table 51. Key Suppliers of Raw Materials Table 52. Pentanoic Acid Distributors List Table 53. Pentanoic Acid Customers List Table 54. Pentanoic Acid Market Trends Table 55. Pentanoic Acid Market Drivers Table 56. Pentanoic Acid Market Challenges Table 57. Pentanoic Acid Market Restraints Table 58. Global Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Forecast by Region (2023-2028) Table 59. North America Pentanoic Acid Consumption Forecast by Country (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 60. Europe Pentanoic Acid Consumption Forecast by Country (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 61. Asia Pacific Pentanoic Acid Consumption Forecast by Region (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 62. Latin America Pentanoic Acid Consumption Forecast by Country (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 63. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Forecast by Type (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 64. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Forecast by Type (2023-2028) & (US$ Million) Table 65. Global Pentanoic Acid Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028) & (USD/MT) Table 66. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Forecast by Application (2023-2028) & (MT) Table 67. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Forecast by Application (2023-2028) & (US$ Million) Table 68. Global Pentanoic Acid Price Forecast by Application (2023-2028) & (USD/MT) Table 69. Research Programs/Design for This Report Table 70. Key Data Information from Secondary Sources Table 71. Key Data Information from Primary Sources List of Figures Figure 1. Product Picture of Pentanoic Acid Figure 2. Global Pentanoic Acid Market Share by Type: 2022 VS 2028 Figure 3. Valeric Acid Standard Product Picture Figure 4. Valeric Acid High Purity Product Picture Figure 5. Global Pentanoic Acid Market Share by Application: 2022 VS 2028 Figure 6. Synthetic Lubricant Figure 7. API Figure 8. Others Figure 9. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million), 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028 Figure 10. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) (2017-2028) Figure 11. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Capacity (MT) & (2017-2028) Figure 12. Global Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) & (2017-2028) Figure 13. North America Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) and Growth Rate (2017-2028) Figure 14. Europe Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) and Growth Rate (2017-2028) Figure 15. China Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) and Growth Rate (2017-2028) Figure 16. Japan Pentanoic Acid Revenue (US$ Million) and Growth Rate (2017-2028) Figure 17. Pentanoic Acid Production Share by Manufacturers in 2021 Figure 18. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Share by Manufacturers in 2021 Figure 19. Pentanoic Acid Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3): 2017 VS 2021 Figure 20. Global Market Pentanoic Acid Average Price (USD/MT) of Key Manufacturers in 2021 Figure 21. The Global 5 and 10 Largest Players: Market Share by Pentanoic Acid Revenue in 2021 Figure 22. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share by Region (2017-2022) Figure 23. North America Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate (2017-2022) Figure 24. Europe Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate (2017-2022) Figure 25. China Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate (2017-2022) Figure 26. Japan Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate (2017-2022) Figure 27. Global Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Region (2017-2022) Figure 28. North America Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 29. North America Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Country in 2021 Figure 30. Canada Pentanoic Acid Consumption Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 31. U.S. Pentanoic Acid Consumption Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 32. Europe Pentanoic Acid Consumption Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 33. Europe Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Country in 2021 Figure 34. Germany Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 35. France Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 36. U.K. Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 37. Italy Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 38. Russia Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 39. Asia Pacific Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 40. Asia Pacific Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Regions in 2021 Figure 41. China Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 42. Japan Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 43. South Korea Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 44. China Taiwan Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 45. Southeast Asia Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 46. India Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 47. Australia Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 48. Latin America Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 49. Latin America Pentanoic Acid Consumption Market Share by Country in 2021 Figure 50. Mexico Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 51. Brazil Pentanoic Acid Consumption and Growth Rate (2017-2022) & (MT) Figure 52. Production Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Type (2017-2022) Figure 53. Production Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Type in 2021 Figure 54. Revenue Share of Pentanoic Acid by Type (2017-2022) Figure 55. Revenue Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Type in 2021 Figure 56. Production Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2017-2022) Figure 57. Production Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Application in 2021 Figure 58. Revenue Share of Pentanoic Acid by Application (2017-2022) Figure 59. Revenue Market Share of Pentanoic Acid by Application in 2021 Figure 60. Manufacturing Cost Structure of Pentanoic Acid Figure 61. Manufacturing Process Analysis of Pentanoic Acid Figure 62. Pentanoic Acid Industrial Chain Analysis Figure 63. Channels of Distribution Figure 64. Distributors Profiles Figure 65. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share Forecast by Region (2023-2028) Figure 66. North America Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate Forecast (2023-2028) Figure 67. Europe Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate Forecast (2023-2028) Figure 68. China Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate Forecast (2023-2028) Figure 69. Japan Pentanoic Acid Production (MT) Growth Rate Forecast (2023-2028) Figure 70. Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of Pentanoic Acid (2017-2028) & (MT) Figure 71. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share Forecast by Type (2023-2028) Figure 72. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share Forecast by Type (2023-2028) Figure 73. Global Pentanoic Acid Production Market Share Forecast by Application (2023-2028) Figure 74. Global Pentanoic Acid Revenue Market Share Forecast by Application (2023-2028) Figure 75. Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report Figure 76. Data Triangulation

This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources.  The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are used to validate the global market size market and estimate the market size for manufacturers, regions segments, product segments and applications (end users). All possible factors that influence the markets included in this research study have been accounted for, viewed in extensive detail, verified through primary research, and analyzed to get the final quantitative and qualitative data. The market size for top-level markets and sub-segments is normalized, and the effect of inflation, economic downturns, and regulatory & policy changes or other factors are not accounted for in the market forecast. This data is combined and added with detailed inputs and analysis from QYResearch and presented in this report.
 

After complete market engineering with calculations for market statistics; market size estimations; market forecasting; market breakdown; and data triangulation, extensive primary research was conducted to gather information and verify and validate the critical numbers arrived at. In the complete market engineering process, both top-down and bottom-up approaches were extensively used, along with several data triangulation methods, to perform market estimation and market forecasting for the overall market segments and sub segments listed in this report. Extensive qualitative and further quantitative analysis is also done from all the numbers arrived at in the complete market engineering process to list key information throughout the report.
 

Secondary Sources occupies Approximately 25% of Sources, such as press releases, annual reports, Non-Profit organizations, industry associations, governmental agencies and customs data, and so on; This research study involved the usage of widespread secondary sources; directories; databases such as Bloomberg Business, Wind Info, Hoovers, Factiva (Dow Jones & Company), TRADING ECONOMICS, and avention; Investing News Network; statista; Federal Reserve Economic Data; annual reports; BIS Statistics; ICIS; company house documents; CAS(American Chemical Society); investor presentations; and SEC filings of companies. Secondary research was used to identify and collect information useful for the extensive, technical, market-oriented, and commercial study of the Light Aircraft market. It was also used to obtain important information about the top players, market classification and segmentation according to industry trends to the bottom-most level, and key developments related to market and technology perspectives.
 

In the primary research process, various sources from both the supply and demand sides were interviewed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information for this report. The primary sources from the supply side include product manufacturers (and their competitors), opinion leaders, industry experts, research institutions, distributors, dealer and traders, as well as the raw materials suppliers and producers etc.
 

The primary sources from the demand side include industry experts such as business leaders, marketing and sales directors, technology and innovation directors, supply chain executive, end users (product buyers), and related key executives from various key companies and organizations operating in the global market.
 

Primary research was conducted to identify segmentation types, product price range, product applications, key players, raw materials supply and the downstream demand, industry status and outlook, and key market dynamics such as risks, influence factors, opportunities, market barriers, industry trends, and key player strategies.
 

Publisher: QY Research
Chat with us